People in This Chapter

Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (ab-dul rah-man al ga-fee-kee): The Muslim general who led the invasion at the Battle of Tours.

Abu Bakr (aboo ba-car): Muhammad’s Father in law. First Caliph after Muhammad’s death.

Ali ibn Abi Talib (ali ibin abi tal-ib): Muhammad’s cousin. Fourth caliph after Muhammad’s death.

Charles Martel: The Mayor of the Palace for the Frankish King. He led the Frankish defense against the Muslim invasion at the Battle of Tours.

Duke Odo of Aquitaine (duke oh-doh of a-qui-tane): A Frankish duke who teamed up with the rest of the Franks to help fight off the Muslim invasion.

Places in This Chapter

Alhambra (al-ham-bra): A palace and fortress built by Muslims in Spain famous for its Islamic architecture.

Cordoba (kor-do-ba): The Muslim capital on the Iberian Peninsula, known for its technology and education.

Dome of the Rock: A mosque built in Jerusalem over the location of where Muhammad ascended to Heaven in a vision.

Iberian Peninsula (eye-beer-ee-an): A peninsula in Western Europe, home to the modern-day countries of Spain and Portugal.

Jerusalem: A city in the Levant that is sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Conquered by the Muslims in 637.

Pyrenees Mountains (peir-en-ees): The mountain range that separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe.

Strait of Gibraltar (gi-brawl-ter): The small opening where the Mediterranean Sea empties into the Atlantic Ocean and Europe and Africa are only a few miles apart.
Things in This Chapter

Abbasid Caliphate (ab-a-sid): The dynasty that ruled the Islamic Empire after the Umayyad Caliphate beginning in 750.

Battle of Tours (tour): A battle between the Franks and the Muslims. The Franks won despite being outnumbered, ending Muslim expansion into Europe.

Caliph (kal-if): Successor of Muhammad, like a king of the Islamic Empire.

Civil war: When a nation is at war with itself.

Islam: The religion founded by Muhammad.

Islamic Empire: The large empire started by Muhammad that grew significantly in the first hundred years after his death. It stretched to include the Middle East, Egypt, North Africa, and most of the Iberian Peninsula.

Mayor of the Palace: A servant to the Frankish King who was responsible for running the king’s household and doing any tasks the king wanted done, including leading troops into battle.

Mosque: A sacred site for Muslims used for prayer, sermons, and community gatherings.

People of the Book: An Islamic term to describe Jews and Christians who all share beliefs with Muslims about Jewish prophets.

Shiite (she-ite): Means the party for Ali; they were the Muslims who supported Ali for caliph.

Sunni (soo-nee): Means lawful; those who supported Abu Bakr as the successor of Muhammad.

Umayyad Caliphate (oo-my-ad): A dynasty that ruled the Islamic Empire from 661 to 750.
Comprehension Questions
Who were the two men nominated to be successor to Muhammad? What were their followers called? Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law, and Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad’s cousin. Abu Bakr’s followers were called Sunni, which means lawful. Ali’s followers were called Shiite, which means the party for Ali.
What areas did the Islamic Empire conquer? Answers do not have to be complete but should include several of the following areas: Arabia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, the Middle East, Egypt, North Africa, and the Iberian Peninsula.
Why did the Islamic Empire expand so quickly? Answers should include some of the following reasons: they wanted more land and power, they wanted to spread Allah’s Word, their neighbors weren’t expecting an attack, they didn’t set up lots of new laws or change daily life, they were expanding for the sake of expanding, desert raiding tactics, etc.
What happened at the Battle of Tours? The Franks united to fight off the invading Muslims. Some of the Franks snuck off and started raiding the Muslim camp during the battle, so the Muslims ran back to defend their treasure. The Muslim general was killed, and the Franks won the battle. The Muslims retreated back to Spain.
What Do You Think Questions
What do you think would have happened if the Muslims won the Battle of Tours?

634 C.E. — Abu Bakr dies

637 C.E. — Jerusalem conquered by Muslims

651 C.E. — Persia conquered by Muslims

656 C.E. — Ali becomes Caliph

661 C.E. — Ali dies/Umayyad Caliphate begins

692 C.E. — Dome of the Rock completed

711 C.E. — Muslim invasion of Europe begins

732 C.E. — Battle of Tours

750 C.E. — Umayyad Caliphate ends/Abbasid Caliphate begins
Map Work

Color the Islamic Empire orange.

Label the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Constantinople, Cordoba, Rome, and Paris.

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